Computer Vision Syndrome
- Children and Computer Vision Syndrome
- Children have a limited degree of self-awareness. They may perform a task on the computer for hours with few breaks. This prolonged activity can cause focusing and eyestrain problems.
- Children assume that what they see and how they see is normal - even if their vision is impaired or slowly deteriorating.
- Children are smaller than adults. Because computer workstations are often arranged for adult use, this can increase the risk of children sitting too near the screen or adopting unusual postures that can lead to eyestrain and neck, shoulder and back pain.
- Before they start school, make sure your kids have a comprehensive eye exam - including an assessment of their near-point (computer and reading) vision skills.
- Make sure your child's computer workstation is arranged to suit body size. For children, the recommended distance between the monitor and the eye is 18 to 28 inches to avoid risk of eyestrain with closer viewing. Also, the screen should be a few inches below the child's eyes. The chair should be adjusted so your child's arms are parallel with the desk surface and his feet rest comfortably on the floor. These adjustments help avoid posture problems and strained muscles.
- Be aware of the signs and symptoms of vision problems, such as eye redness, frequent rubbing of the eyes, head turns and other unusual postures or complaints of blurriness or eye fatigue. Avoidance of the computer or school work may also indicate a vision problem.
- Computer Eyestrain: 10 Steps for Relief
- Computer Glasses
- Computer Vision Syndrome
- Computer Vision Syndrome Q & A
- Frequently Asked Questions: Computer Vision Syndrome and Computer Glasses
- Loss of focus
- Burning/tired eyes
- Red eyes
- Double/blurred vision
- Eye twitching
- Dry eyes
- Neck and shoulder pain
- Worker Productivity and Computer Vision Syndrome
- There is a direct correlation between proper vision correction and productivity. This relationship particularly is evident with complex and/or repetitive computer tasks such as data entry.
- There is a direct correlation between proper vision correction and the time required for a computer worker to perform a task. Computer-related tasks took much longer when the subjects wore glasses with less than the optimum correction for computer work.
- Reduced productivity from vision problems can occur even if the computer user is unaware of having a vision problem. Performance on a specific task can suffer significantly — by as much as 20% — from minor vision problems.
- Providing computer vision care to all employees who use computers, even those who are not experiencing CVS symptoms, results in significant productivity gains and cost savings for employers.
- Musculoskeletal problems, which may be caused by computer-related vision problems, can potentially be minimized or eliminated by including computer vision care in a comprehensive ergonomics program.
- Employees performing tasks with particularly demanding visual requirements, such as accounting, document editing, CAD (computer-assisted design) work, electronic design and engineering, could benefit even more from computer eyewear than the average computer worker.
- A computer vision benefits program likely will also reduce incidence of workers' compensation claims among computer workers.
Children and Computer Vision Syndrome
Computer use has become a routine part of kids' lives. About 90% of school-aged children in the U.S. have access to a computer. And kids are starting to use computers at a younger age. Among college students who were interviewed, 20% said they began using a computer before they were 9 years old.
In fact, the use of computers and other digital devices has become so common during childhood that a 2015 report by The Vision Council revealed that nearly one in four kids spend more than three hours a day using digital devices.
A Connection Between Computer Use and Myopia?
So how is all this computer use at a young age affecting kids' eyes?
Many eye doctors who specialize in children's vision say sustained computer use puts kids at higher risk for childhood myopia (nearsightedness). They point out that, though myopia affects approximately 25% of the U.S. population, nearly 50% of adult computer users with a college education are nearsighted. Computer use, especially among youngsters whose eyes are still changing, may be the reason for this disparity.
Research seems to support this theory. A study of 253 children between the ages of 6 and 10 at the University of California at Berkeley School of Optometry found a strong correlation between the amount of time young children spend on the computer and their development of nearsightedness.
Why Computers Can Be Hard on Kids' Eyes
Sitting for hours in front of a computer screen stresses a child's eyes because the computer forces the child's vision system to focus and strain a lot more than during any other task. This can put children at an even greater risk than adults for developing symptoms of computer vision syndrome. Computer use stresses the eyes more than reading a book or magazine because it's harder to maintain focus on computer-generated images than on printed images. This is especially true for young children, whose visual system is not fully developed.
Doctors are also concerned about the long-term effects of exposure to the blue light that is emitted by digital devices. Blue light, also known as high-energy visible, or HEV, light penetrates deeper into the eye than ultraviolet light and may damage kids' retinas.
According to the American Optometric Association, children may be especially vulnerable to computer-related vision problems because:
Tips for Preventing Computer Vision Syndrome in Children
To prevent your child from developing eyestrain and other CVS symptoms (including increasing myopia), follow these tips:
If you suspect your child may be developing a vision problem related to computer use, be sure to mention this when you make an appointment for an eye exam. Your doctor may want to set aside extra time to perform tests specifically designed to detect computer vision problems.
Article ©2015 Access Media Group LLC. All rights reserved. Reproduction other than for one-time personal use is strictly prohibited.
Computer Eyestrain: 10 Steps for Relief
With so many people using computers at work, eyestrain has become one of the leading office-related health complaints.
Experts estimate 50% to 90% of computer users experience some degree of eyestrain or other symptoms of computer vision syndrome (CVS) during their work day. Studies show eyestrain and CVS often cause fatigue, decreased productivity and more work errors.
So what can you do about it? Here are steps you (and your employer) can take to reduce computer eyestrain and the other common symptoms of computer vision syndrome (CVS):
1. Get a computer eye exam. This is the most important thing you can do to prevent computer vision problems. According to the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), computer users should have an eye exam before they start working on a computer and once yearly thereafter. Be sure to tell your eye doctor how often you use a computer at work and at home.
2. Use proper lighting. Computer eyestrain is often caused by excessively bright ambient lighting — either from outdoor sunlight coming in through a window or from harsh interior lighting. For the most comfortable computer use, ambient lighting should be about half as bright as that found in most offices.
If possible, reduce the brightness of interior lighting by using fewer fluorescent tubes in overhead light fixtures, or use lower intensity bulbs. Also try to position your monitor so that windows are to the side of it, instead of in front or back. You can also close curtains, shades and blinds to reduce the amount of sunlight at your workstation.
3. Minimize glare. Glare on walls and finished surfaces, as well as reflections on the computer screen, can also cause computer eyestrain. You may want to install an anti-glare screen on your monitor and, if possible, paint bright white walls a darker color with a matte finish.
Again, cover the windows. When outside light cannot be reduced, consider using a computer hood.
If you wear glasses, have an anti-reflective (AR) coating applied to your lenses. AR coating reduces glare by minimizing the amount of light reflecting off the front and back surfaces of your eyeglass lenses.
4. Upgrade your display. If you've not already done so, replace your old tube-style monitor (called a cathode ray tube or CRT) with a flat-panel liquid crystal display (LCD), like those on laptop computers.
LCD screens are easier on the eyes and usually have an anti-reflective surface. Old-fashioned CRT screens can cause a "flicker" of images on the screen. Even if this flicker is imperceptible, it can still contribute to eyestrain and fatigue during computer work.
If you still use a CRT, you can decrease eyestrain from flicker by increasing the refresh rate of your screen to 75 hertz (Hz) or higher. You can access this setting in the Control Panel of your computer.
When choosing a new flat panel display, select a screen with the highest resolution possible. Resolution is related to the "dot pitch" of the display. Generally, displays with a lower dot pitch have sharper images. Choose a display with a dot pitch of .28 mm or smaller.
Finally, choose a relatively large display. For a desktop computer, select a display that has a diagonal screen size of at least 19 inches.
5. Adjust the brightness and contrast of your computer screen. For more comfortable viewing, adjust the display settings on your computer so the brightness of the screen is about the same as that of your work environment.
As a test, try looking at the white background of this web page. If it looks like a light source, it's too bright. If it seems dull and gray, it may be too dark.
Also, adjust your screen settings to make sure the contrast between the screen background and the on-screen characters is high. And make sure that the text size and color are optimized for the most comfort. Usually, black text on a white background is the best color combination. But other high-contrast, dark-on-light combinations may also be acceptable.
Finally, adjust your computer's color temperature. Reducing the color temperature of your display lowers the amount of blue light emitted by a color display. Blue light is short-wavelength visible light that is associated with more eyestrain than longer wavelength hues, such as orange and red.
6. Blink more often. Blinking is very important — it rewets your eyes to keep them moist, comfortable and clear.
Studies show that, during computer use, people blink less frequently — about one-third as often as they normally do. And, according to studies, many blinks performed during computer work are only partial lid closures. This greatly increases the risk for dry eyes, blurred vision, eye irritation and fatigue.
To keep your eyes comfortable and seeing well during computer use, try this exercise: Every 20 minutes, blink 10 times by closing your eyes as if falling asleep (very slowly). This will help rewet your eyes.
Also, keep a bottle of artificial tears at your workplace and use them to moisten your eyes often during prolonged computer use. Ask your eye doctor to recommend the best brands for your needs.
7. Exercise your eyes. Another cause of computer eyestrain is focusing fatigue. Research shows that it's harder for our eyes to maintain focus on computer-generated images than on printed images in a book or magazine.
To reduce your risk of focusing fatigue during computer use, look away from your screen or monitor every 20 minutes and gaze at a distant object across the room. Looking far away relaxes the focusing muscles inside your eyes, reducing focusing fatigue.
Another exercise is to look far away at an object for 10-15 seconds, then gaze at something up close for 10-15 seconds, and then look back at the distant object again. Do this 10 times. This exercise reduces the risk of your eyes' focusing system "locking up" (a condition called accommodative spasm) during prolonged computer work.
8. Take frequent breaks. Take frequent, short breaks from your computer work throughout the day. Stand up, walk away from your work station and stretch your arms, legs, back, neck and shoulders. These activities will reduce your risk for computer vision syndrome and neck, back and shoulder pain.
Many workers take only two 15-minute breaks from their computer during their work day. According to a recent NIOSH study, computer workers experienced significantly less discomfort and eyestrain if they took four additional 5-minute "mini-breaks" during the day.
Interestingly, these supplementary breaks did not reduce productivity. Data entry speed was significantly faster as a result of the extra breaks, so work output was maintained even though the workers had 20 extra minutes of break time each day.
9. Modify your workstation. Looking back and forth between a printed page and your computer screen (as during data entry tasks), can also cause eyestrain. To improve comfort during these tasks, place the print material on a copy stand adjacent to your screen or monitor. If necessary, use a desk lamp to illuminate the print material - but make sure it doesn't shine into your eyes or onto the computer screen.
Improper posture during computer work also contributes to computer vision syndrome. Adjust your workstation and chair to a comfortable height so your feet are flat on the floor in front of you.
Adjust your chair and computer so your screen is approximately 20 to 24 inches from your eyes and slightly below eye level so you can view it comfortably with your head and neck in a natural position.
10. Consider computer eyewear. For the greatest comfort at your computer, you may benefit from having a customized eyeglasses prescription for your computer work. This is especially true if you normally wear contact lenses that can become dry and uncomfortable during sustained computer work.
Computer glasses are also a good choice if you normally wear eyeglasses with bifocal or progressive lenses. Though these lenses provide excellent vision for most tasks, they don't provide an adequate viewing zone for prolonged computer work.
Your eye doctor can prescribe specially designed computer eyewear to give you the best possible vision at your computer screen. Keep in mind that computer glasses are a specific type of eyewear and typically should not be worn when driving.
Article ©2015 Access Media Group LLC. All rights reserved. Reproduction other than for one-time personal use is strictly prohibited.
When you work at a computer for any length of time, it's common to experience eyestrain, blurred vision and other symptoms of computer vision syndrome (CVS). Viewing computer-generated print and images on a screen or monitor for prolonged periods is harder on the eyes than viewing a similar amount of material on the printed pages of a book or magazine.
If you're under age 40, blurred vision during computer use may be due to your eyes being unable to remain accurately focused on your screen for sustained periods. Or you may have a hard time quickly and accurately changing focus, such as when you shift your gaze from your monitor to your keyboard and back again. This problem, called lag of accommodation, can cause eyestrain and headaches — two common symptoms of CVS.
If you're over age 40, the onset of presbyopia — the normal age-related loss of near focusing ability — can make focusing on a computer screen even more difficult, further increasing the risk of eyestrain, headaches and eye fatigue.
So what can you do to make your eyes more comfortable and function more efficiently during computer use? Have your eye doctor prescribe specially designed computer glasses.
Customized computer glasses can make a world of difference. These special-purpose glasses are prescribed specifically to reduce eyestrain and give you the most comfortable vision at your computer.
I Already Wear Glasses. Do I Really Need Computer Glasses?
If you already wear prescription eyeglasses or reading glasses, you may be tempted to dismiss the idea of computer glasses. But eyeglasses prescribed for general-purpose wearing are often not well-suited for prolonged computer work.
Why? When working at a computer, your eyes are generally 20 to 26 inches from your computer screen. This distance is considered the intermediate zone of vision — closer than driving (distance) vision, but farther away than reading (near) vision.
Most young people wear eyeglasses to correct their distance vision. Reading glasses are prescribed to correct near vision only. And bifocals prescribed for those over age 40 with presbyopia correct only near and far. None of these eyeglasses are optimized for the intermediate zone of vision used during computer work.
Even trifocals and progressive lenses, which do include the correct power for intermediate vision, have only a small portion of the lens dedicated to this area — not nearly a large enough area for comfortable prolonged computer work.
Without the appropriate eyewear, computer users can often end up with blurred vision, eyestrain, and headaches — the hallmark symptoms of computer vision syndrome (CVS). Worse still, many people try to compensate for their blurred vision by leaning forward, or by tipping their head to look through the bottom portion of their glasses. These unnatural postures can lead to headaches, neck and shoulder pain, and backaches.
Computer Glasses Reduce Errors and Increase Productivity
Are computer glasses worth the extra cost of a second pair of glasses?
Yes, they are. Research has shown that, in addition to increasing comfort and decreasing the risk of CVS, prescription computer glasses can reduce errors and productivity loss caused by vision problems during computer work.
A study conducted at the University of Alabama School of Optometry found that even minor changes from the optimum lens power for computer work can cause a 38% decrease in accuracy for tasks performed on a computer and a 9% loss in worker productivity. The researchers concluded that, because of productivity gains from workers wearing computer glasses, companies that pay for computer eyewear for their employees could experience a benefit/cost ratio of $18 for every $1 spent.
Computer Lens Designs
There are a number of special purpose lens designs that work well for computer glasses. Because these lenses are prescribed specifically for computer use, they are unsuitable for driving or general-purpose wear.
The simplest computer glasses have single vision lenses with a modified lens power prescribed to give the most comfortable vision at the user's computer screen. These lenses reduce the amount of focusing the eyes have to do to keep images on the computer screen clear and provide the largest field of view, reducing the need for head tilting and other unnatural posture changes during computer work.
For older computer users, a specially designed occupational progressive lens for computer use is sometimes a better option. Progressive lenses for computer use have a larger intermediate zone than regular progressive lenses for a wider, more comfortable view of the computer screen.
Another option for presbyopic computer users is an occupational lined bifocal or trifocal, with larger intermediate and near zones than regular designs.
Your eyecare professional can help you decide which lens design will best suit your needs.
Lens Coatings and Treatments
Anti-reflective (AR) coating can make your computer glasses even more comfortable. This coating reduces glare caused by reflections of overhead fluorescent lighting that can occur in uncoated eyeglass lenses.
Also, because many office environments are too bright for optimum visual comfort, a light tint is often a good idea as well.
Finally, some of the newer computer lenses are specifically designed to block the short-wavelength, blue light that is emitted from computer screens. Blue light is associated with glare, eyestrain and potentially more serious long-term vision problems.
Article ©2015 Access Media Group LLC. All rights reserved. Reproduction other than for one-time personal use is strictly prohibited.
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Computer Vision Syndrome Q & A
What can I do when my eyes tire out from too much reading and computer use?
This is a common problem. See your eye doctor about computer eyeglasses that will help you focus more accurately and with less effort. When prescribed properly, these glasses can also help you read printed material. Lenses also can have tints and coatings to make your eyes feel a lot better.
Also, take frequent breaks (every 15-20 minutes) from reading or computer use. Look at something far away, like an object outside a window, to relax your focusing muscles. And make sure the lighting is correct for the activity you are doing — bright for reading and a bit dimmer for computer work.
Is it necessary to wear special eye protection when working on the computer? Is such protection necessary if I already wear prescription eyeglasses?
Not necessarily. However, there is increasing concern about high-energy visible (HEV) light wavelengths that are emitted from digital displays. New research is revealing that excessive exposure to this segment of blue light can damage retinal cells, leading to long-term vision problems such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cataracts.
Eyestrain is another issue. Having an accurate, up-to-date prescription and an ergonomically appropriate workstation can make a huge difference in managing your visual comfort while using your computer. Also, consider adding an anti-reflective coating on your lenses to minimize glare.
My eyes become sensitive to light when I do a lot of reading on a computer screen. Sometimes, the words seem to change size. Also, my distance vision sometimes is blurred after I do computer work. Is this computer vision syndrome, and what should I do about it?
Yes, all these symptoms suggest you have computer vision syndrome (CVS). Focusing problems are common among people who spend a lot of time at a computer. We can prescribe eyeglasses that will help you be more comfortable and should relieve your symptoms. You can also help yourself by making sure your work station is efficient and comfortable. Check out the lighting, height of your screen, angle of your screen, hand position, etc.
Can your eyes and face get burned by computer monitors?
No. If they could, you'd see a lot of red-faced and red-eyed people.
My eyes often become red when I read a book or use a computer. Will eye drops help?
Your eyes becoming red could be a sign that you are having trouble focusing. Have your eyes examined to see if you should wear glasses to alleviate near vision stress. See an eye doctor before using over-the-counter eye drops on a regular basis. Your doctor will be able to determine if you need drops and, if so, which type of eye drops will be best for you.
How can I relieve eye stress from working at a computer all day?
To relieve eyestrain from prolonged computer use, take frequent breaks during your work day. About every 15 minutes, look up and far away, preferably out a window or across the room. Also, make sure your work station is correctly structured and lighted. Your screen or monitor should be positioned about 20 to 26 inches from your eyes, slightly below eye level. Tilt the screen slightly away from you at the top, the way you would hold a book, to reduce glare from reflected light. Adjust the screen contrast to be comfortable, and make sure the room lighting isn't too bright.
Also, see your eye doctor for regular exams to monitor your vision. Even a slight vision change can cause eyestrain during computer work. Special computer glasses can help you see your screen with less focusing effort, and your eye doctor can advise you about lens coatings and tints that can also help relieve eyestrain.
Frequently Asked Questions: Computer Vision Syndrome and Computer Glasses
Who is affected by computer vision syndrome?
Computer eyestrain affects more than 70% of the approximately 143 million Americans who work on a computer on a daily basis, according to the American Optometric Association (AOA). In fact, more than 90% of adults report using digital devices more than two hours a day.
And grown-ups aren't the only ones affected. Though computer vision syndrome (CVS) is often associated with adult computer users, children may be even more vulnerable to the condition.
What are the symptoms of CVS?
Symptoms of computer vision syndrome include:
What causes computer vision syndrome?
CVS is caused by the increased demands of computer-generated images on our eyes and visual systems and by the prolonged and/or repetitive nature of computer work.
Our eyes have little problem focusing on most printed material, which is characterized by dense black characters with well-defined edges. Characters on a computer screen, however, don't have the same high contrast or well-defined borders. The luminous elements (pixels) that create images on a computer screen are brightest at the center and diminish in intensity toward their edges. This makes it more difficult for our eyes to focus accurately on computer-generated images compared with images printed with ink in a book or magazine.
As our eyes struggle to gain and maintain focus on images on a computer screen, this continuous flexing of the eyes' focusing muscles creates fatigue and the burning, tired-eyes feeling that is so common after long hours at the computer.
In addition, it's common for computer users to fall into bad postural habits and remain in these positions for extended periods of time, causing muscle strain, fatigue and headaches.
What can I do about CVS?
A pair of computer eyeglasses can help relieve many of the symptoms of CVS. Unlike regular eyeglasses, computer glasses are prescribed specifically for the distance from your eyes to your computer screen. This reduces the focusing demands on your eyes during computer use to lessen eye fatigue and reduce the risk for eyestrain and other computer-related vision problems.
Will glare screens prevent CVS?
A glare filter for your computer screen may help somewhat, but it will not solve all your computer vision problems. Filters can reduce glare from overhead lights or outdoor sunlight reflecting off the surface of your computer screen. But they do nothing to prevent the vision problems related to the constant refocusing of your eyes when working at a computer.
Only when your eyes can focus clearly at the plane of proper distance on the computer screen can they experience relief from the fatiguing effects of CVS. An anti-reflective coating (AR) is also highly recommended on all computer eyeglasses.
Will anti-reflective coating on my eyeglasses eliminate glare?
Anti-reflective (AR) coatings reduce glare from light reflecting off the front and back surfaces of your eyeglass lenses. So, like filters for your computer screen, AR coatings for eyeglass lenses are helpful, but they do not address the primary cause of most CVS symptoms.
However, special coatings and filters may help protect your eyes from long-term vision problems caused by blue light exposure. Also referred to as high-energy visible (HEV) light exposure, blue light can reach deeper into the eye than ultraviolet light and, over time, may damage your retina.
Will computer eyeglasses make the screen clearer?
Yes, because they will eliminate the constant refocusing effort that your eyes go through when viewing the screen. Research has also shown that wearing computer eyeglasses increases productivity and accuracy.
Do computer glasses look like safety glasses?
No. Almost any style of frame can be used for computer glasses. Also, the lenses of computer glasses don't have to pass the stringent impact-resistance standards required of lenses in safety glasses.
Should computer lenses be tinted?
If you work in a very bright office, you may benefit from a light tint applied to your computer lenses. This can cut the amount of light that reaches your eyes and provide relief in some cases. But tints and filters don't address the underlying cause of computer eyestrain.
If I don't have symptoms of CVS, do I still need computer eyewear?
Maybe. Research has shown that even computer users who are not experiencing symptoms of CVS may benefit from wearing computer eyewear. An eye exam with a computer vision specialist is the best way to determine if computer glasses might be helpful for you.
Will insurance pay for these glasses?
In some cases, yes. If you have medical coverage, but not vision insurance, the exam portion of the cost may be covered by your medical carrier. If you have vision insurance, you may be entitled to an annual exam, which could be used to cover the computer exam and a portion of the cost of the computer eyewear.
Will my reading glasses work at the computer?
Not necessarily. As with anything else you do in life, it's important to have the right tool for the job. You would not use a hammer when you need a screwdriver. The same goes for your vision. You would not use distance glasses for doing close work.
So, in most cases, your reading glasses are probably not going to do the job at the computer. Reading glasses are usually prescribed to optimize vision at a distance of approximately 14 to 16 inches from your eyes. Computer glasses are designed to provide optimum vision at a normal computer distance — usually 20 to 28 inches from your eyes.
Isn't ergonomics the solution to computer eyestrain?
Ergonomics can be defined as the science of designing and arranging things people use to enable interaction in the most efficient and safe manner possible. Taking these steps can be an important component of preventing and treating CVS. But ergonomics alone - placing a computer screen at a comfortable height and distance from the user, for example - cannot fix a vision problem. This can be achieved only with prescription eyewear.
Will wearing computer eyeglasses make my eyes worse?
No. There is no evidence that wearing computer glasses harms your eyes or causes changes such as myopia (nearsightedness), farsightedness or astigmatism. In fact, some research suggests that reducing focusing stress with special lenses for reading or computer use may slow the progression of myopia in some school-aged children. And blue-light blocking computer lenses will limit your exposure to potentially harmful HEV rays, limiting cumulative damage to retinal cells.
Worker Productivity and Computer Vision Syndrome
If you use a computer at work, you probably already know that a long day of staring at your screen can lead to eyestrain, tired eyes, headache, muscle aches and other symptoms of computer vision syndrome (CVS).
But did you know that CVS can also cause more mistakes and lost productivity, too?
CVS Increases Vision Problems in the Workplace
According to the American Optometric Association (AOA), the most frequent health complaints among computer workers are vision-related. Studies suggest 50% to 90% of computer users suffer from visual symptoms of computer vision syndrome. These symptoms include eyestrain, dry eyes or eye irritation, blurred vision and double vision.
With increasing numbers of employees using a computer at work, CVS is becoming a major public health issue. The AOA reports that approximately 10 million eye exams are performed annually in the United States due to vision problems related to computer use.
Worker Productivity and CVS
A study conducted by the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) School of Optometry examined the relationship between the vision of computer workers and their productivity in the workplace. The study found:
"Our data strongly suggest that improving the visual status of workers using computers results in greater productivity in the workplace, as well as improved visual comfort," said Kent Daum, OD, PhD, the study's chief investigator.
Computer Eyewear and the Bottom Line
According to the UAB study, employers who invest in computer eyewear for their employees can experience a positive impact on their bottom line from such a program.
The authors of the study concluded:
"Our study confirms that investing in optimal computer eyewear for employees results in a significant cost-benefit ratio," Dr. Daum said.